History of NRC
In fact, in the British era, people of Bihar and Bengal used to go to Assam to work in tea gardens and to cultivate the vacant land, which was opposed by the local citizens. Whichever politics was started, but this issue was not able to take a big shape.
But even after independence, the process of illegal entry of people from the erstwhile East Pakistan and later Bangladesh to Assam continued, which was angered by the common people.
The situation worsened
The situation worsened when, in the then East Pakistan (in present-day Bangladesh) internal conflict started over the language dispute, the situation became so violent that a large population of both Hindu and Muslim sections residing there started moving towards India. done .
In 1971, when the start of the repressive action by the Pakistani army in East Pakistan, about 10-12 lakh people crossed the Bangladesh border and took refuge in Assam. However, the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi had said that the refugees, irrespective of their religion, would have to return.
When East Pakistan was declared as an independent country as Bangladesh
On 16 December 1971, when East Pakistan was declared as an independent country as Bangladesh, there was a decrease in violence there, due to which many people who came from Bangladesh to India returned to their homeland, but millions of people stayed in Assam as well. went .
However, even after 1971, Bangladeshis continued to come to Assam on a large scale, which was worrying for the natives there. This rapid change in population created a feeling of insecurity in the minds of the native people on issues such as linguistic, cultural and political, as a result a powerful movement was born about these issues, led by students and youth. The class did it.
Sudden increase in the number of voters
But the bypoll was announced in 1978 due to the demise of Hira Lal Patwari, MP of Manglodi Lok Sabha constituency in Assam at the time of this movement. According to the data obtained, the election official found that there has been a sudden increase in the number of voters, this created local outrage.
Outsiders comprise 31 to 34 percent of the total population.
It is believed that due to the arrival of outsiders, especially Bangladeshis, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of voters in this area.
However, bypassing local opposition, the government included all these people in the voter list. This behavior of the central leadership led to outrage among the locals. People took to the streets under the leadership of All Assam Students Union (AASU) and Assam Gana Sangram Parishad.
The agitation run by Asu and the Asom Gana Sangram Parishad was supported by Assamese-speaking Hindus, Muslims and many Bengalis. The leaders of the movement claimed that outsiders comprise 31 to 34 percent of the total population.
The Central Government was demanded to seal the borders of Assam, identify outsiders and remove their names from the voter list. Until this happens, no elections should be held in Assam and citizens of other states who came before 1961 should also be sent back.
When the central government decided to hold the assembly elections in 1983, organizations associated with the movement boycotted it. Though elections were held, less than 3% of the votes were cast in the opposing areas and violence erupted.
This violence necessitates mention of Nellie in Morigaon town of Assam in which thousands of tribals surrounded dozens of Bengali-speaking Muslims in the Nellie region and thousands of Bengali Muslims were killed in a few hours.
State police was also involved in this massacre. This was the largest massacre of independent India till then.
An agreement was then reached between the then Rajiv Gandhi government at the Center and the leaders of the Assam Movement, known as the Assam Accord, on 15 August 1985.
Despite prolonged negotiations, no consensus was reached between the leaders of the movement and the central government, with the complexity of the issue not easy to decide who is ‘outsider’ or foreigner and where such people should be sent .
Between 1979 and 1985, there was political instability in the state, many times President’s rule was also implemented, a situation of constant agitation and ethnic violence was started.
The document called the Assam Accord was signed by the Government of India and the leaders of the Assam Movement. The representatives of India and Assam also attended and decided to give full citizenship to all those who came between 1951 and 61 and who People came to Assam after 1971, they will be repatriated.
In 1999, the then BJP government at the Center started reviewing the agreement entered into with Assam Rajiv Gandhi in 1985.
On 17 November 1999, the Central Government decided that the NRC should be updated under the Assam Accord, but the work could not be started even after the withdrawal of funds.
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh decided that NRC should be updated.
Again on 5 May 2005,then Prime Minister Manmohan Singh decided that NRC should be updated. And its process started, but it was stopped after violence in some parts of the state. Even after meeting several opposition groups, the matter could not be reached.
In 2013, a public interest litigation was filed in the Supreme Court by an NGO named Assam Public Work. A total of 40 hearings were held in the Supreme Court till 2013-17, in which the Assam Government had asked to update it by 31 December 2017 but was presented as a final draft in the month of July 2018.
NRC does not mean that these names will also be removed from the voter list.
About 40 lakh people are not named in this final draft. Although the Supreme Court has prohibited any strictures on them for the time being. The Election Commission has also clarified that the deletion of the name from the NRC does not mean that these names will also be removed from the voter list.
The three essential requirements for voter registration under the Representation of the People Act, 1950 include the applicant being a citizen of India, the minimum age being 18 years and resident of the constituency concerned.